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Another Italian painter, Francesco Primaticcio from Bologna, "Primatice" to the French , joined later in the decoration of the palace.
Together their style of decoration became known as the first School of Fontainebleau. This was the first great decorated gallery built in France.
Broadly speaking, at Fontainebleau the Renaissance was introduced to France. In about , Francis began another major addition to the chateau. Using land on the east side of the chateau purchased from the order of the Trinitaires, he began to build a new square of buildings around a large courtyard.
It was enclosed on the north by the wing of the Ministers, on the east by the wing of Ferrare, and on the south by a wing containing the new gallery of Ulysses.
The chateau was surrounded by a new park in the style of the Italian Renaissance garden , with pavilions and the first grotto in France.
Primaticcio created more monumental murals for the gallery of Ulysses. Following the death of Francis I, King Henry II decided to continue and expand the chateau.
The King and his wife chose the architects Philibert de l'Orme and Jean Bullant to do the work. They extended the east wing of the lower court and decorated it with the first famous horseshoe-shaped staircase.
Facing the courtyard of the fountain and the fish pond, they designed a new building, the Pavillon des Poeles , to contain the new apartments of the King.
She named Primaticcio as the new superintendent of royal public works. He extended the oval court toward the west by building two pavilions, called Tiber and Luxembourg.
Between and , he built a new courtyard, called the Cour des Offices or the Quartier Henry IV , to provide a place for the kitchens and residences for court officials.
Two new galleries, the Galerie de Diane de Poitiers and the Galerie des Cerfs , were built to enclose the old garden of Diane. He also added a large Jeu de paume , or indoor tennis court, the largest such court existing in the world.
A "second school of Fontainebleau" of painters and decorators went to work on the interiors. Henry IV also devoted great attention to the park and gardens around the Chateau.
The garden of the Queen or garden of Diane, created by Catherine de' Medici, with the fountain of Diane in the center, was located on the north side of the palace.
The fountain of Diana and the grotto were made by Tommaso Francini , who may also have designed the Medici Fountain in the Luxembourg Garden for Marie de Medici.
On the south side, Henry created a park, planted with pines, elms and fruit trees, and laid out a grand canal meters long, sixty years before Louis XIV built his own grand canal at Versailles.
He completed the decoration of the chapel of the Trinity, and assigned the court architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau to reconstruct the horseshoe stairway earlier designed by Philibert Delorme on the courtyard that had become known as the Cour de Cheval Blanc.
King Louis XIV spent more days at Fontainebleau than any other monarch; he liked to hunt there every year at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn.
The architect Jules Hardouin-Mansard built a new wing alongside the Galerie des Cerfs and the Galerie de Diane to provide more living space for the Court.
He destroyed the hanging garden which Henry IV had built next to the large fish pond, and instead built a pavilion, designed by Le Vau, on a small island in the center of the pond.
Louis welcomed many foreign guests there, including the former Queen Christina of Sweden , who had just abdicated her crown.
On May 19—20, , during the Regency following the death of Louis XIV, the Russian Czar Peter the Great was a guest at Fontainebleau. A hunt for stags was organized for him, and a banquet.
Officially the visit was a great success. The routine of Fontainebleau also did not suit his tastes; he preferred beer to wine and brought his own supply with him and he liked to get up early, unlike the French Court.
The renovation projects of Louis XV were more ambitious than those of Louis XIV. To create more lodging for his enormous number of courtiers In —38 the King built a new courtyard, called the Cour de la Conciergerie or the Cour des Princes , to the east of the Galerie des Cerfs.
On the Cour du Cheval Blanc , the wing of the Gallery of Ulysses was torn down and gradually replaced by a new brick and stone building, built in stages in — and —74, extending west toward the Pavilion and grotto of the pines.
Between and , the King commissioned the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel to build a new wing along the Cour de la Fontaine and the fish pond. The old Pavilion des Poeles was demolished and replaced by the Gros Pavilion , built of cream-colored stone.
Lavish new apartments were created inside this building for the King and the Queen. A new building was constructed alongside the Gallery of Francis I; it created a large new apartment on the first floor, and a number of small apartments on the ground floor, but also blocked the windows on the north side of the Gallery of Francis I.
The apartments of Queen Marie-Antoinette were redone, a Turkish-style salon was created for her in , a room for games in —, and a boudoir in the arabesque style.
Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette made their last visit to Fontainebleau in , on the eve of the French Revolution.
The buildings were occupied by the Central School of the Department of Seine-et-Marne, until , when Napoleon I installed a military school there.
As he prepared to become Emperor, Napoleon wanted to preserve as much as possible the palaces and protocol of the Old Regime.
He chose Fontainebleau as the site of his historic meeting with Pope Pius VII , who had travelled from Rome to crown Napoleon Emperor.
Napoleon had a suite of rooms decorated for the Pope, and had the entire chateau refurnished and decorated. The bedroom of the Kings was transformed into a throne room for Napoleon.
Apartments were refurnished and decorated for the Emperor and Empress in the new Empire style. The Cour du Cheval Blanc was renamed the Cour d'Honneur , or Courtyard of Honor.
The gardens of Diane and the gardens of the Pines were replanted and turned into an English landscape garden by the landscape designer Maximillien-Joseph Hurtault.
Napoleon's visits to Fontainebleau were not frequent, because he was occupied so much of the time with military campaigns.
On 5 November , the chapel of the Chateau was used for the baptism of Napoleon's nephew, the future Napoleon III, with Napoleon serving as his godfather, and the Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother.
Napoleon spent the last days of his reign at Fontainebleau, before abdicating there on 4 April , under pressure from his marechals, Ney, Berthier, and Lefebvre.
On 20 April, after failing in an attempt to commit suicide, he gave an emotional farewell to the soldiers of the Old Guard, assembled in the Court of Honor.
Later, during the One Hundred Days, he stopped there on 20 March Perhaps it was not a rigorously architectural palace, but it was certainly a place of residence well thought out and perfectly suitable.
It was certainly the most comfortable and happily situated palace in Europe. Following the restoration of the Monarchy, Kings Louis XVIII and Charles X each stayed at Fontainebleau, but neither made any major changes to the palace.
Louis-Philippe was more active, both restoring some rooms and redecorating others in the style of his period. The Hall of the Guards and Gallery of Plates were redecorated in a Neo-Renaissance style, while the Hall of Columns, under the ballroom, was remade in a neoclassical style.
Emperor Napoleon III , who had been baptized at Fountainebleau, resumed the custom of long stays at Fontainebleau, particularly during the summer.
Many of the historic rooms, such as the Galerie des Cerfs , were restored to something like their original appearance, while the private apartments were redecorated to suit the tastes of the Emperor and Empress.
Numerous guest apartments were squeezed into unused spaces of the buildings. Between and the architect Hector Lefuel built a new theater in the style of Louis XVI.
It also featured paintings by contemporary artists, including Franz Xaver Winterhalter , and the sculptor Charles Henri Joseph Cordier.
Close by, in the Lous XV wing, the Emperor established his office, and the Empress made her Salon of Lacquer. These were the last rooms created by the royal residents of Fontainebleau.
During the Franco-Prussian War , the palace was occupied by the Prussians on 17 September , and briefly used as an army headquarters by Frederic Charles of Prussia from March Following the war, two of the buildings became the home of the advanced school of artillery and engineering of the French Army, which had been forced to leave Alsace when the province was annexed by Germany.
It also received a visit by the last survivor of its royal residents, the Empress Eugenie , on 26 June In it became a national museum. During World War II, it was occupied by the Germans on 16 June , and occupied until 10 November, and again from 15 May to the end of October The general restoration of the Chateau took place between and under President Charles DeGaulle and his Minister of Culture, Andre Malraux.
It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in In , the Ministry of Culture purchased the royal stables, and began their restoration.
Beginning in , restoration began of the theater of the Chateau, created by Napoleon III during the Second Empire. The project was funded by the government of Abu-Dhabi , and in exchange the theater was renamed for Sheik Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan.
It was inaugurated on 30 April On 1 March , the Chinese Museum of the Chateau was robbed by professional thieves.
They broke in at about six in the morning, and, despite alarms and video cameras, in seven minutes stole about fifteen of the most valuable objects in the collection, including the replica of the crown of Siam given by the Siamese government to Napoleon III, a Tibetan mandala , and an enamel chimera from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — The Gallery of Francis I is one of the first and finest examples of Renaissance decoration in France.
It was originally constructed in as a passageway between the apartments of the King with the oval courtyard and the chapel of the convent Trinitaires, but in Francis I made it a part of his royal apartments, and between and it was decorated by artists and craftsmen from Italy, under the direction of the painter Rosso Fiorentino , or Primatice, in the new Renaissance style.
The lower walls of the passage were the work of the master Italian furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi ; they are decorated with the coat of arms of France and the salamander , the emblem of the King.
The upper walls are covered by frescoes framed in richly sculpted stucco. The frescoes used mythological scenes to illustrate the virtues of the King.
On the side of gallery with windows, the frescoes represent Ignorance Driven Out ; The Unity of the State ; Cliobis and Biton ; Danae ; The Death of Adonis ; The Loss of Perpetual Youth ; and The Battle of the Centaurs and the Lapithes.
On the side of the gallery facing the windows, the frescoes represent: A Sacrifice ; The Royal Elephant ; The Burning of Catane ; The Nymph of Fontainebleau painted in —61 by J.
Alaux to cover a former entry to the gallery ; The Sinking of Ajax ; The Education of Achilles and The Frustration of Venus. The ballroom was originally begun as an open passageway, or loggia , by Francis I.
In about King Henry II closed it with high windows and an ornate coffered ceiling, and transformed it into a room for celebrations and balls.
The 'H', the initial of the King, is prominent in the decor, as well as figures of the crescent moon, the symbol of Henry's mistress Diane de Poitiers.
At the western end is a monumental fireplace, decorated with bronze statues originally copied from classical statues in Rome.
At the eastern end of the room is a gallery where the musicians played during balls. The decor was restored many times over the years.
The floor, which mirrors the design of the ceiling, was built by Louis-Philippe in the first half of the 19th century. The frescoes on the walls and pillars were painted beginning in by Nicolo dell'Abate , following drawings by Primatice.
On the garden side of the ballroom, they represent: The Harvest ; Vulcan forging weapons for Love at the request of Venus ; Phaeton begging the sun to let him drive his chariot ; and Jupiter and Mercury at the home of Philemon and Baucis.
The frescoes on the side of the Oval Courtyard represent: The feast of Bacchus ; Apollo and the Muses on Mount Parnassus ; The Three Graces dancing before the gods ; and The wedding feast of Thetis and Peleus.
Behind the ballroom, there is St. Saturnin's Chapel. The lower chapel was originally built in the 12th century, but was destroyed and completely rebuilt under Francis I.
A room for the guards was always located next to the royal bedchambers. The Salle des Gardes was built during the reign of Charles IX.
Some traces of the original decor remain from the s, including the vaulted ceiling and a frieze of military trophies attributed to Ruggiero d'Ruggieri.
In the 19th century Louis Philippe turned the room into a salon and redecorated it with a new parquet floor of exotic woods echoing the design of the ceiling, and a monumental fireplace , which incorporates pieces of ornament from demolished rooms from 15th and early 16th century.
The bust of Henry IV, attributed to Mathieu Jacquet, is from that period, as are the two figures on either side of the fireplace.
The sculpted frame around the bust, by Pierre Bontemps, was originally in the bedchamber of Henry II. During the reign of Napoleon III , the hall was used as a dining room.
It was designed by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel , who used many decorative elements from the earlier room, which had originally been decorated by Primatice.
The upper portion of the walls is divided into panels, oval and rectangular, with scenes representing the love life of Alexander the Great.
The paintings are framed by large statues of women by Primatice. The eastern wall of the room was destroyed during the reconstruction, and was replaced during the reign of Louis Philippe in the 19th century with paintings by Abel de Pujol.
The ornate ceiling over the bed was made in by the furniture-maker Guillaume Noyers for the Dowager Queen Anne of Austria , the mother of Louis XIV, and bears her initials.
Oktober fand die Uraufführung der Oper Le devin du village von Jean-Jacques Rousseau statt. Die Kolonie New Orleans ging im Rahmen des geheimen Abkommens von Fontainebleau an Spanien , was im Pariser Frieden bestätigt wurde.
Von bis hielt Napoleon I. Papst Pius VII. Oktober musste Spanien im Vertrag von Fontainebleau der französischen Armee Durchmarschrechte nach Portugal zugestehen.
Anlass war die Weigerung des portugiesischen Königs Johann VI. Portugal wurde in der Folge besetzt und das Haus Braganza abgesetzt. Der neue Vertrag von Fontainebleau wurde geschlossen.
Napoleon dankte ab und mit der Zweiten Restauration kehrten die Bourbonen auf den Thron zurück.
Im Jahr wurde hier im Umfeld einer internationalen Konferenz die Naturschutzorganisation IUCN gegründet. Vom August bis April war Fontainebleau Sitz des NATO - Hauptquartiers Allied Forces Central Europe AFCENT.
In der Nähe der Stadt, auf dem Camp Guynemer , war das Hauptquartier der Allied Air Forces Central Europe AAFCE. Beide Schulen wurden von italienischen Künstlern gegründet.
Von beiden Schulen finden sich heute fast nur noch diejenigen Werke im Schloss, die mit dem Bauwerk untrennbar verbunden sind, wie Fresken oder Deckenmalereien.
Von herausragender künstlerischer, aber auch historischer Bedeutung ist die Möblierung der königlichen bzw. Dadurch überlagern sich Elemente von Renaissance bis zum Historismus.
In der Neuzeit wurde das Amerikanische Konservatorium im Schloss eingerichtet, eine Sommerakademie für Kunst und Architektur.
Während der französischen Revolution wurde das Pfeifenmaterial zerstört. Es hat heute 15 Register auf drei Manualen. Das Instrument ist mit einem Gesamttremulanten ausgestattet.
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